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Address: Shaanxi Province, Xian City, Lingtong County, Qinling Town
Admission Fee: CNY 90 (Mar.1 to Nov. 30),
CNY 65 (Dec. 1 to Feb. 28/29)
Opening Hours: 08:00 to 18:00
Telephone:+86-29-81399001
Recommended Time for a Visit:Three hours
Bus Route: 914 and Tourist Bus 5 (306) at the East Square of Xian Railway Station
hotels nearby:Mingdu international hotel
scenic spots nearby:Huaqing Spring

Museum of Qin Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses

Description

The Terra Cotta Warriors and Horses are the most significant archeological excavations of the 20th century. Work is ongoing at this site, which is around 1.5 kilometers east of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Mausoleum, Lintong County, Shaanxi Province. It is a sight not to be missed by any visitor to China.
In 1974 a group of peasants were digging a well, vaults containing terra-cotta figures were found 1.5 kilometers east of the mausoleum. About 7,000 pottery soldiers, more than a 100 chariots, 600 horses, and a large number of real weapons were unearthed from these vaults. The vaults cover more than 20,000 square meters in total. Excavation of the vault revealed thousands of warriors and their horses; an entire army designed follows its emperor into eternity. Hence, the Qin Terra Cotta Army are over 2,200 years old. The emperor's terra cotta army was found in three underground timber lined vaults. Pit 1 contained chariots and ranks of six thousand soldiers. Pit 2 held fourteen hundred figures of cavalrymen, horses and infantrymen, along with ninety wooden chariots. Pit 3 contained about seventy figures. Excavating them has been a massive undertaking. To date, more than a thousand warriors have been reassembled. With a total area of 22,780 square meters and 1,000 life-size terra-cotta warriors, horses and chariots.

Pit 1 is the largest, first opened to the public on China's National Day, 1979. There are columns of soldiers at the front, followed by war chariots at the back. Pit 1 contained chariots and ranks of six thousand soldiers although much of the site had been looted. Pit 1 in an oblong shape which is 230 meters long from east to west, 62 meters wide from north to south and 5 meters deep, covering an area of 114,260 square meters. The terra-cotta warriors and horses in Pit No.1 are arrayed in a practical battle formation. Each soldier was baked in a kiln. In the long corridor to the east end of the pit stand facing east three rows of terra-cotta warriors in battle tunics and puttees, 70 in each, totaling 210 altogether. On the south, north and west of the corridor, three rows of terra-cotta warriors with their heads facing outward. These warriors were dressed and ready for battle. They are probably the flanks and the rear guard. Holding crossbows and arrows and other long-distance shooting weapons, they took up the job of defending the whole battle formation. The ten rammed partition walls divided Pit No.1 into 11 rows with horse-drawn chariots in the center. The warriors, armor-clad, holding long-shaft weapons are probably the main body of the formation and represent the principal force. There are altogether 27 test pits. There will be 6,000 warriors and horses in Pit No.1 according to estimation, most of which are infantrymen.

Pit 2 found in 1976, is 20 meters northeast of No. 1 Pit. It contained over a thousand warriors and 90 chariots of wood. It was unveiled to the public in 1994 held fourteen hundred figures of cavalrymen, horses and infantrymen, along with ninety wooden chariots. Pit 2 is L-shaped and consists of four different mixed military forces, namely, infantry, cavalry, archers and charioteers. The four forces can be rearranged into one array of troops or four individual small arrays, which either serve as attacking or protecting themselves in a quick response. The facial expressions of the men in this pit are also very different from those men in the first pit.

Pit 3 is located 25 meters to the north of Pit No.1 and to the west of Pit No.2. Archeologists came upon No. 3 Pit also in 1976, 25 meters northwest of No. 1 Pit. It is a concave structure of 520 square meters. It looked like to be the command center of the armed forces. It went on display in 1989, with about seventy figures. Excavating them has been a massive undertaking. To date, more than a thousand warriors have been reassembled. Linked together, the three pits covered an area of 20,000 square meters and included around 8,000 figures. The Terracotta Warriors and Horses is a sensational archeological find of all times. It has put Xian on the map for tourists. It was listed by UNESCO in 1987 as one of the world cultural heritages.





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